title.
Title image by Charles Ray, Auburn University
introduction image
Illustration by Kathryn M. Sommerman

Skip to Psocid taxonomy

This guide to the psocids of Texas is an ongoing project to aid those interested in this often overlooked group. Many specimens, unfortunately, cannot be identified without microscopic examination, dissection and preparation of permanent slides. I present these images to convey the diversity of these remarkable insects. Click the psocid image for a link to that BugGuide species page. Unless otherwise stated, all species images were taken by the author.  Psocids (bark lice and booklice) are now placed with the true lice in the order Psocodea. For convenience one can put quotes around it and use the term "Psocoptera" to refer to psocids only.

For questions or comments E-Mail: Diane W. Young

The expert on psocids of North America is Dr. Edward L. Mockford of Illinois State University. His book, "North American Psocoptera" (Sandhill Crane Press, 1993), is the essential reference for this group. Imagine the task of taking on an entire order of insects for your life's work! Dr. Mockford remains active in the field of psocidology. He has describedMockford over 430 species! He started collecting psocids in 1944 and is still very active in publishing scientific papers. He is a true Renaissance man - fluent in several languages including cladistics. It is my fond hope that Dr. Mockford can find the time to publish a second edition of his book. You should see his laboratory! There are so many boxes of specimens from all over the world. The information listed on this website is taken primarily from Mockford's publications with additional comments from my own personal observations.

For species lists worldwide and current research in this group contact Psocid News.

Garcia Aldrete.

Dr. Alfonso Garcia Aldrete, at the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), Instituto de Biologia, is a PhD student of Dr. Mockford's and is active in the field of psocidology. He has described over 418 species native to the U.S., Mexico, Central and South America. Many of the tropical psocids are actually colorful and have very unusual wing venation. Dr. Garcia Aldrete certainly has his work cut out for him with hundreds of un-described species to deal with. 

George Opit.

Dr. George P. Opit is an Assistant Professor at Oklahoma State University, Dept. of Entomology & Plant Pathology. He has a great online key to domestic booklice at: http://entoplp.okstate.edu/labs/go/psocid/

Warning... Booklice are a tricky group, to say the least. You will have to do some tedious slide work if you expect to ID any booklice. If you are brave enough to attempt an ID you have my admiration.

beauty queen.
Ed and me.
Garcia Aldrete.
blaste on lichen.

Psocids and psocid hunters

cat.

My barklice adventures have just begun. As you can see, I get much help from my feline companion. My range maps, which are actually record maps, are taken from my own collection, from specimens recorded from the University of Texas Insect Collection, Texas A&M Insect Collection, from the scientific literature and even BugGuide. As I extend the ranges, I will update the range maps. I will be adding species to the website as I encounter them. Please inform me if you have preserved specimens with collection data that would add counties to the Texas range maps. Range maps not shown for Liposcelididae. Species identification in this taxon is very difficult and I will not attempt to post images unless I have had expert verification. Un-described species may not have a BugGuide page. Dissection of psocids and preparation of permanent slides is a character-building experience for sure. With practice, however, one does do what first seemed impossible.camera vertical

I consider myself a citizen scientist now that I'm retired.  I was an entomology major for my first 3 years of college but then due to circumstances too numerous to mention,  spent camera horizontalmy career  in biochemistry. My passion was always bugs and now I have returned to that noble quest. Macro photography is essential when working with tiny barklice. To the left is my "horizontal" setup and to the right my "vertical" one. I post regularly on BugGuide and find it not only an incomparable source of information but a link to others who share my love of insects.

When one is out collecting with a beat sheet people as well as dogs are perplexed. What is that thing they ask? The next question, from people, is Why? or the dreaded "What are they good for? What a thrill to find something totally "new". One can do that with amateur entomology.


Psocids include barklice, found in trees, shrubs and leaf litter as well as booklice which inhabit manmade dwellings and dead vegetation. They are hemimetabolous (incomplete metamorphosis) and share with other hemipteroid insects a reduction in tarsomeres, absence of cerci and unique anatomy of the hypopharynx. These insects were until recently placed in the order Psocoptera with the lice in a separate order Phthiraptera. Molecular genetic evidence has confirmed past suspicions that true lice evolved from booklice and this finding has brought about a taxonomic reshuffling in which bark lice and parasitic lice share the order Psocodea. According to K. Yoshizawa, C. Lienhard and K. Johnson, "seven suborders are now generally recognized within the Psocodea: Trogiomorpha (bark lice), Troctomorpha (book lice and bark lice), Psocomorpha (bark lice), Amblycera (chewing lice), Ischnocera (chewing lice), Rhynchophthirina (chewing lice) and Anopleura (sucking lice)"; Zool. J. Linn. Soc. 146:287-299, 2006). It is even theorized that lice arose twice from psocid ancestors ("Multiple origins of parasitism in lice" Johnson, K. P., Yoshizawa, K., Smith, V. S., Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 271:1771-1776, 2004. This idea is hotly debated. See section on louse evolution in the Psocoptera on Amber section below.

Rudolph fig.  Lingual sclerites   Soft bodied psocids and true lice are surprisingly resistant to desiccation because of a remarkable ability described by D. Rudolph (J. Insect Physiol. 28(3):205-212, 1982).  As shown in this illustration from Rudolph’s paper, psocids can eject “lingual sclerites” (sl) to the external environment where they actively absorb water from humid air. These structures are then pulled back into the head. This ability is also present in booklice and true lice and helps explain their presence in relatively arid habitats.

   I had never seen the lingual sclerites until videotaping mating behavior in Amphigerontia montivaga. After the male and female separated the female began manipulating the spermatophore to extract the speratozoa inside. This effort must have been exhausting. She extruded a bright orange lingual sclertite. Wonder what chemical process allows this structure to absorb water so efficiently? To view see Video # 1 (at 2:50 min.) at the end of the Anatomy section.


Anatomy

headMorphological terms in entomology vary with the taxon under consideration. I'm including this section as an aid to those brave enough to attempt to key out psocid specimens. It is also my hope that you will find some of the items here interesting. First I have included two figures from The Psocoptera of tropical South-east Asia by T. R. New & C. Lienhard - depicting the anatomy of the head and wings. For more detail see the chapter on Psocoptera by E. L. Mockford in Borror and DeLong's Introduction to the Study of Insects by Triplehorn and Johnson. All scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images taken by Gregory Paulson of Shippensburg University.

"The evolutionary history of the Paraneoptera is beautifully reflected in structure and function of their mouthparts. There is a general trend from the most generalized 'picking' mouthparts of Psocoptera with standard insect mandibles, to the probing and puncturing mouthparts of thrips and anapleuran lice, and the distinctive piercing-sucking rostrum or beak of the Hemiptera." Evolution of Insects D. Grimaldi & M. Engel, 2005, p. 261.  In psocids, the labial palps are redued to 2 segments in Trigiomorpha and Troctomorpha and a single one in Psocomorpha.

jaws
mouthpartsLacinia  The lacina of the maxilla in psocids  has evolved into an elongate pick-like structure unique to the "Psocopera". Laciniae are thought to scrape out food material but are also thought to prop the head while the mandibles are in use.

These structures are beautifully depicted on the SEM image to the left  from Amphigerontia montivaga. Going from anterior to posterior are the labrum, mandibles, laciniae and maxillary palps, then the labium with the opening of the silk gland along the midline. That is the long backwards-pointing structure. For a close up view see section on silk.

To the right is an image from Tapinella maculata with a clearer view of the mandibles and laciniae.
The laciniae look like toothpicks with prongs.




fore hind wings
 Wing venation and other anatomical features vary considerably among families. Individuals may be macropterous, brachypterous, micropterous or apterous, depending on species and environmental or phenological conditions. Apterous and micropterous psocids lack ocelli. Alary polymorphism occurs in many species. In the family Pachytroctidae, for example, males are apterous and females either apterous or macropterous. Sexual dimorphism in Mesopsocus results in marcopterous males and apterus females. The dimorphism is reversed in Embidopsocus.


Don't get the impression that the wing diagram above will work for all psocids. Far from it. When the aerola postica fuses with vein M, as in the family Psocidae, the cell created is called the discoidal cell.
The wings of  members of the family Lepidopsocidae are covered with scales which look much like those of lepidoptera.  Wing venation varies widely in different familes of Psocoptera from minimal in Archipsocidae and Liposcelididae to very complex in the tropical family Calopsocidae. Supernumerary veins, for example, result in a very complex pattern in Ianthorntonia annae (Epipsocidae) of Brazil which is named after the noted psocidologist Ian Thornton.




nodus
Psocids are unusual among insects in that they have two different wing-coupling mechanisms. One anchors the wings at rest and the other couples the wings in flight.

Nodus The stigmasac or nodus at the base of the pterostigma engages the costal vein of the hind wing and locks the wings into a "tent" when at rest in members of Psocomorpha. In the more basal Trigiomorpha and Troctomorpha, the wings are held flat.




nodulusnodulus 3Nodulus The 
nodulus, located where veins Cu2 and 1A join on the hind margin of the forewing, couples the fore and hind wings during flight. It is found in Psyllipsocidae and Psocomorpha.
Two SEM images depict this wing-coupling structurre. Look carefully at the image to the left and you will see the hook-like nodulus of the fore wing (above) engaging the costal vein of the hind wing (below). 

In my humble opinion, this SEM image (right) of the nodulus is a work of art! I think I'm going to frame it.




sensoriumSensorium One of the most fascinating anatomical features of barklice is the sensorium or sense cushion which is found on the dorso-lateral surface of the paraproct in winged specimens. This structure is thought to be a reminant of the cerci. It consists of closely set sense organs, each consisting of a sensory "hair" surrounded by a rosette or "basal floret".  One can imagine the hair being moved by a gust of wind and triggering a direction-specific nerve ending as the basal floret is warped. The SEM image to the right depicts the sensorium with  trichobothria surrounded by basal florets. It is theorized that this structure detects wind currents and aids in flight. Each sensory unit is callled trichobothrium and the number of trichobothria is species specific. In more "primitive" species the sensorium has fewer,  more dispersed trichobothria. Speleketor flocki (Prionoglaridae), for example, has only 4 trichobothria/ sensorium. Ref.: Mockford, E. L., The Southwestern Naturalist 29(2): 169-179, 1984.




rasp Rasp & mirror  The hind coxae of many adult psocids bears a rasp and mirror  otherwise known as Pearman’s organ. The rasp is a denticulate field and the mirror a minute tympanum. It is thought that the rasps of opposing coxae are rubbed together to produce a sound which is amplified by the adjacent mirrors. It is more complex in winged members of the Psocomorpha and is better developed in males. The SEM image to the left is the rasp and mirror of Hyalopsocus striatus. What a shame that so little research has been done to verify these ideas. It’s just another case of an overlooked and under-appreciated taxon.  In the following video (see link below) you will see possible stridulation behavior on the part of the male and female of Amphigerontia montivaga. The male moves very fast, so his behavior is more difficult to interpret. It sure looks to me as though the female could be rubbing her hind coxae togeather. In this video notice the spermatophore passes from the male to female and the bright orange lingual sclerite which protrudes from the mouth of the female as she manipulates the spermatophore to recover the sperm inside. View full screen for best results.

    Video # 1    https://www.youtube.com/edit?o=U&video_id=YCcfD497GYw



Among the few entomologists who have dared venture into “Psocoptera”, there have been some real characters.  Although known as an expert on dragonflies, Robin Tillyard described numerous psocid species, including some ancient ones. He was obsessed by the giant Permian griffenflies.  According to David Grimaldi Tillyard.and Michael Engel (Evolution of the Insects, p.140) “Tillyard sought a mystic to reveal the deep past so that he could see the griffenflies in flight, but he was a careful and thoughtful scientist.” Legend has it that Tillyard gave a lecture in the 1920s while visiting Kansas and members of the audience said that he spoke of the griffenflies as though he had seen them in person. The lower Permian Elmo limestone formation of Kansas has yielded fossil dragonflies as well as insects which were “well on their way to being Psocoptera” (Courtney N. Smithers, Classification and Phylogeny of the Psocoptera, Part V. Fossil Psocoptera, The Australian Museum Memoir 14, 1972, p. 240). Image to the right shows Tillyard (center) examining fossils from Elmo (courtesy of Roy J. Beckemeyer, windsofkansas.com). This is one of several newly discovered images of Tillyard.

fossil wings.The ancient "psocids" described by Tillyard from Permian formations in Kansas and Australia differed from modern psocids in the following characters: 1) fore and hind wings were of more equal size, 2) wing venation was more extensive; for example, vein M had 4 branches, 3) antennae had more than 50 segments, 4) tarsi were 4-segmented, and 5) maxillary and labial palps had greater number of segments.  

According to Charles Lienhard and Courtney N. Smithers in "Psocoptera World Catalogue & Bibliography", Instrumenta Biodiversitatis , Museum d'hostoire naturelle, Geneve, 2002 : The [Permian] fossil "psocids" cannot be assigned to Psocoptera as this order is defined at present and are not mentioned in this catalogue." Cenozoic and Cretaceous psocid species found in amber are included in this catalogue.


 

Psocoptera in amber

psocid in amber“Psocoptera” are well represented as inclusions in amber.  Baltic amber was formed during the Eocene epoch at around 44 million years ago. The image to the left (Baltic) is from a beautiful website by  Anders Damgaard http://amber-inclusions.dk/?id=332828 .

David Grimaldi and Michael Engel (Fossil Liposcelididae and the lice ages, Proc. R. Soc. B 273:625-633, 2005) describe the "oldest and most primitive Liposcelididae" from mid-cretaceous amber (100 million year old) from Myanmar. Cretoscelis burmitica possessed numerous plesiomorphic traits that distinguish it from all other genera of winged Liposcelididae. This find extends the geological age of the family to twice that of the previous oldest fossil Embidopsocus eocenicus. The authors speculate on the origin of lice: "we find louse polyphyly implausible for several reasons. ...[it] requires two origins of a suite of features distinctive to lice. "Until compeling evidence indicates otherwise, it seems reasonable to assume monophyly of Phthiraptera. This specialized lifestyle apparently originated in the Early Cretaceous, fed by diverse early mammals, haired pterosaurs, amd feathered thropods. Phthiraptera probably did not significantly diversify, though, until the large radiations of placental mammals and passerine birds that took place in the Tertiary, which can justifiably be called an 'age of lice'".

Tim King of Highland Lake (Blount Co, Alabama) recently discovered psocids using a Berlese funnel on leaf litter which were the first living species of a genus previously only known from Baltic amber.  In a sense the are "living fossils". Edward Mockford recently described the species Sphaeropsocus bicolor, A new species of Sphaeripsocus Hagen from southeastern United States: the first living species of its genus, Life: The Excitement of Biology,1(2):100-111, 2013).

In a recent study of all fossil “Psocoptera” known to occur in amber, 32 species were listed encompassing 27 genera and 11 families, including the extinct Archaetropidae and Empheriidae  (Mockford, E. L.; Lienhard, Charles; and Yoshizawa, Kazunori; Revised Classification of “Psocoptera” from Cretaceous Amber, a reassessment of published information”, Insecta Matsumurna, New Series  69:1-26, 2013).  No extant genus was represented in Cretaceous amber. The Psocomorpha represent 6% of species in Cetaceous amber, 69% in Baltic amber (Paleogene) and 84% in extant species. The main radiation of the Psocomopha, therefore, appears to have occurred in the Cenozoic.  

 webbing.Psocoptera Silk

Silk is only produced in the Classes Insecta and Arachnida. This proteinaceous material is composed of repetitive amino acid sequences and transforms from liquid to solid form as it is extruded.  "Despite the fact that silks spun by insects and spiders evolved independently, they display some remarkable similarities that could suggest convergence and stabilizing selection" Catherine L. Craig, "Spiderwebs and Silk", Oxford U. Press, 2003, p.32. Silk production, in at least some species, is present in all insect groups except Collembola, Protura, Odonata, Phthiraptera and Zoraptera. Even larval fleas can spin silk. "On the basis of silk gland type, silk protein molecular structure, and the phylogenetic relationship of silk-producing species, we grouped insect silks into 23 distinct categories, each likely to represent an independent evolutionary event. Despite having diverse functions and fundamentally different protein structures, these silks typically have high levels of protein crystallinity and similar amino acid compositions. The substantial crystalline content confers extraordinary mechanical properties and stability to silk and appears to be required for production of fine protein fibers." T. D. Sutherland, J.H. Young, S. Weisman, C.Y. Hayashi and D. J. Merritt, Insect Silk: One Name, Many Materials, Ann. Rev. Entomol. 55:171-188, 2010.
silk opening
Among insects there are four distinct types of glands that produce silk: collateral, dermal, labial and malpighian. Labial silk glands evolved only twice, once in the "Psocoptera" and later in holometabolos insect larvae (Craig., p.19). The simplified labium in psocids consists of labial palps of only one to two segments with the silk gland opening between them. Psocids often cover their eggs with a sparse layer of silk. I have personally observed lachesillids spin silk in my collection vials and I suspect that some species might use silk in some escape strategy but this is just wild speculation on my part.  Both nymphs and adult psocids can spin silk. To the right is a close up of the external opening of the silk gland on the labium. It's the pointed structure along the midline.

  Video # 2  A female Ectopsocus meridionalis silking over her clutch of eggs: here.

The champion among psocids, as far as silk spinning, occurs in the Archipsocidae, the basal Psocomorph lineage.  Archipsocus nomas, for example, builds extensive silken retreats like that shown to the left in a photo by Dr. Douglas Caldwell of the University of Florida. The webbing is harmless but often attracts the attention of homeowners who immediately call the exterminator. What a shame.




                                       Camouflage
   camo 1
camo2Let’s face it—psocids are not known for their bright colors except when you enter the Tropics. Our North American species pretty much stick to earth tones. Many blend in simply by their coloration as does this psyllipsocid (to the left) against the mortar of a brick wall. This image was taken by John Schneider of Houston. Many cases of such cryptic coloration allow psocids to virtually disappear on bark, lichen, dead leaves or rock outcrops.

 Many nymphs in the genera Blaste and Loensia (family Psocidae) are covered with blunt-tipped hairs which cause debris to stick and mask their presence. Can you find the Loensia moesta nymph to the right? The remarkable SEM images by Gregory Paulson (below) show the lengths to which these creatures go to provide camouflage. He took these SEM images of a nymph of the same species. One wonders whether these hairs secrete some kind of glue. Notice that even the compound eyes, wings and legs have these sticky hairs. Edward Mockford says in North American Psocoptera, p. 3: "Nymphs of some species of Psocomorpha have gland hairs, short setae with flaring tips. These in some cases retain bits of debris, thus forming a camouflaging coat over the body surface. In other cases, the gland hairs may facilitate body contact among nymphs". 


A well documented case of industrial melanism was  reported in Mesopsocus unipunctatus (C.Popescu, E. Broadhed and B. Shorrocks. Ecological Entomology 3:209-219, 1978). In this species dark individuals predominated in industrial regions of Yorkshire, while a light form predominated in the Yorkshire Moors and Dales. It would be intereting to follow up on this report and determine whether the dark form has declined with increased pollution regulations.
camo 3
 camel
  Camelopsocus monticolus Tom Green County, TX
camo lichenomima
There are even some species that possibly camouflage by mimesis, or appearing to be something else. Take Camelopsocus monticolus Mockford (on the left) in which the nymphs and wingless females, when perched on a stem, might resemble thorns to potentiel predators. Tree hoppers aren't the only insects with this trick up their sleeves. C. bactrianus, C. hiemalis and C. similis, all North american species, have similar abdominal anatomy and might utilize the same strategy. This is all speculation on my part as Ed Mockford who described these species makes no mention of this apect of thier biology.

Psocids also employ what could be considered disruptive coloration. Myopsocids are the North American champions at cloaking their identity. Even thier compound eyes have pigment patterning that makes them less obvious. This specimen of Lichenomima (to the right) is hard to spot on bark. Even the genus name hints at thier talent for disappearing on a lichen-covered branch.


 Psocids from the Twilight Zone 

devil psocid.   This little horned devil, Peritroctes bengalensis Thornton & Wong  hails from the botanical gardens of Calcutta (Thornton, W. B. & S. K. Wong, Some Psocoptera from West Bengal, India, Transactions of the Royal Entomological Society of London, 118(1): 1-21, 1966. This species is in the family Pachytroctidae. Now here is the amazing thing that happened. Right after I read about this curious creature, I found some living in my leaf liter/ dead palm frond habitat!! I did not know they even occured on this continent. Dr. Mockford was a bit surprised as well and he told me that he and his PhD student Alfonso Gracia Aldrete are currently working on Pachytroctidae. Small world, isn't it? I am sending him specimens of the male and winged female of the little horned devil. Amateur entomology can be so much fun!Antilopsocus.
I later found out that there is another bizarre species in the same family that does it one better. Ashley B. Gurney in 1965 described Antilopsocus nadleri from Trinidad and Brazil. "I am glad to name this remarkable insect in honor of one of its discoverers, my friend Aaron M. Nadler" from "A New Genus of Neotropical Psocids with Horn-like structures on the Head", Entomological News, 76(1): 1-10, 1965. One wonders if the male of the species (currently unknown) also has "antlers".  Might these decorations on the vertex be part of a mating ritual? Could these amazing "antlers" be an example of sexual selection even if both sexes might bear them? If I'm ever down that way, I'd sure like to see one of these first hand!

The supernumerary veins in the forewing of members of the new genus Ianthorntonia really areThorntonia. super! This genus is named after the psocidologist Ian Thornton. These Bolivian psocids are in the family Epipsocidae which is one of the most diverse in the "Psocoptera". See Alfonso N. Garcia Aldrete, "A new epiposcid genus from Bolivia", in Thorntonia A Commemorative Volume for Ian W. B. Thornton, Publicaciones Especiales  20, Universiad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, pp. 99-113, 2004.

   This section still under construction!


Eggs

eggsVirtually all psocids are oviparous. The only published exceptions are in the genus Archipsocopsis. In Archipsocopsis fernandi, embryos remain in the ovarian tubules until "birth". The eggs contain no yolk and embryos are nurished by the serosal lining of the ovarian tubule (Quart. J. Micr. Sci. 77: 99-119, 1934). Mockford also observed viviparity in Archipsocopsis parvulus (Bull. Fla. State Museum 1(5): 253-274, 1957).

Psocid eggs may be laid singly or in groups, the number being dependent on the number of ovarioles in the ovary. Eggs may be encrusted with chewed and only partly digested material as in Tapiella maculata, Ptycta polluta and Trichadenotecnum. In Blaste quieta, a mass of eggs is laid then covered with chewed and partly digested bark, making the eggs difficult to detect. Many species cover their eggs with silk as seen in Valenzuela flavidus and Stenocaecilius casarum. Psocid eggs can enter diapause during winter or periods of extreme heat.

SEMeggsContrary to earlier reports, psocid eggs do indeed possess a micropyle which allows sperm to enter at fertilization. As in other insects, the egg is oriented in the oviduct in such a way that the micropylar region is in the proximity of the spermathecal duct as it passes through the oviduct.  Zuzana Kucerova (Eur. J. Entomol. 99:491-503, 2002), using scanning electron microscopy, found a micropylar region on the eggs of all 13 of the synanthropic species she investigated.  These domestic species included  Trogium pulsatorium, Lepinotus patruelis, Dorypteryx domestica, Psyllipsocus ramburii, Liposcelis decolor, Liposeclis bostrichophila, and Lachesilla pedicularia. Presented here are previously unpublished SEM images by Gregory Paulson depicting a series of eggs (uper panel) and micropylar regions (lower panel) of several species of Lachesilla. One wonders how the sperm manage to locate this tiny region on the egg.

male mymaridPsocid eggs do play host to parasitoid wasps of the family Mymeridae, which lay their eggs in recently deposited host eggs. One remarkable such "fairyfly" was described by E. L. Mockford (Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 90(2): 115-120, 1997). Dicopomorpha echmepterygis infects the eggs of Echmepteryx hageni. Host eggs generally contained a single female and one or more males. The male is the smallest insect so far recorded at 0.139-0.240 mm. The scale bar to the right is 0.1 mm. These bizarre males have no eyes or wings but tarsi that resemble suction cups. Mockford observed males attached to females by thier remarkale tarsi. Describing the male, Mockford says "He has long legs. Although the antennae are unsegmented, they are relatively large, protruding like great ears from the tiny head. He looks like an organism equipped to hunt for something, presumably a mate. Perhaps he is clinging with his suction cups on his sibling female to a new set of host eggs, where he then quests for a nonsibling mate."  

ovirupters

In order to escape from the egg, psocid pronymphs employ a specialized ovirupter or egg burster which is usually armed with numerous teeth. According to Kathryn M. Sommerman who observed this process in Ectopsocopsis cryptomeriae: “The arms of the egg burster stretch across the front of the head with the center puncturing shaft projecting posteriorly towards the clypeus. The heads of several individuals were observed pulsating before the chorions were broken…at the time the chorion splits, the top of the head is pulsating regularly. Fifteen minutes after the chorion was noticably broken the egg burster punctured the pronymphal membrane. The pronymphal exuviae bearing the egg burster always remained partly extruded from the chorion.” (Psyche 50 (3-4): 53-66, 1943).

The image to the left shows oviruptors form 2) Stenopsocus, 3) a typical bark-frequenting psocid (Psocidae), 4 & 5) Ectopsocus, 6) Graphopsocus, 7 & 8) Caecilius. These figures are from The Psocoptera of tropical South-east Asia, T. R. New and C. Lienhard, 2007. 




Trogiomorpha

Troctomorpha

Psocomorpha

Suborder Trogiomorpha

Infraorder Atropetae

Family LEPIDOPSOCIDAE

Subfamily Thylacellinae

Thylacella cubana (Banks)  1941

Thylacella cubana map.Size: 2.5 mm Range: This is the only species of the genus in the Western Hemisphere. It has been  colleted around Brownsville, TX and penninsular Florida. Outside the U.S. it occurs in Cuba, Mexico, Guatemala and Belize. Habitat: persistant dead leaves of various plants, also on trunks and branches of trees.

Thylacella cubana female.

Subfamily Lepidopsocinae

Echmepteryx hageni (Packard)  1870

Echmepteryx hageni map.

Size: ~ 3 mm Range outside Texas: Eastern U.S. west to Arkansas Habitat: Bark and leaves of deciduous trees and on exposed  outcrops. Males are rare except at a few sites in the U.S.

echmepteryx hageni.

Subfmily Echinopsocinae

Neolepolepis occidentalis (Mockford) 1955

Neolepolepis occidentalis map.

Size: ~1.6 mm. Range outside Texas: Eastern U.S.  less common in the southwest. Habitat: Leaf litter. There is a macropterous form of this species and I would be delighted to encounter it.

Neolepolepis occidentalis.

Family TROGIIDAE

Cerobasis guestfalica (Kolbe)  1880

Cerobasis guestfalica map

Size: 1.5 mm. Cosmopolitan. Habitat: Deciduous and evergreen trees and stone outcrops. Identified by the anchor shaped mark on the frons. Most populations are parthenogenetic.

Cerobasis guestfalica

Lepinotus reticulatus Enderlein  1905

Lepinotus reticulatus map

Size: ~ 1.2 mm. Range: Cosmopolitan. Habitat: Leaf litter, granaries, bird and mammal nests. Winglets with a distinctive reticulate pattern. The wings are easily dislodged. This species can become a pest in stored food products.

Lepinotus reticulatus

Trogium pulsatorium (Linnaeus) 1758

Trogium pulsatorium mapSize: ~ 1.7 mm. Range:  Not common; found primarily in the northeast; Habitat: Can occur in grain mills, bird nests, even herbaria. I have only found it on palms (Sabal minor) at Aquarena Springs. Males and females look very much alike.


Trogium pulsatorium.

Family PSOQUILLIDAE

Rhyopsocus bentonae Sommerman 1956

Rhyopsocus bentonae map.Size: male 1.03 mm, female 1.18 mm Range:  throughout penninsular Florida, Atlantic Coast to Brunswick GA, around Gulf Coast to Texas, southern and southeastern Mexico. Habitat: dead leaves of palm, yucca and Typha. In this photo the male is on the left. I call this one the "Hobbit psocid".

Rhyopsocus bentonae.

Rhyopsocus eclipticus Hagen 1876

Rhyopsocus eclipticis map Size: 1.4 mm. Range: Atlantic Coastal Plain, Gulf Coast from Florida to south Texas, along Mississippi embankment to southern Illinois. Habitat: dead persistent leaves, conifer foilage and leaf litter. Note the large terminal segment of the maxillary palps.

Rhyopsocus eclipticus, male
Rhyopsocus eclipticus female

Infraorder Psocathropetae

Family PSYLLIPSOCIDAE


Dorypteryx domestica (Smithers) 1958

map Dorypteryx domesticaSize: ~ 2 mm. Range outside Texas: records from central Europe, southern England, Zimbabwe.  It is only known from domestic situations such as basements. This rather odd lookng psocid reminds me of Gollum from Lord of the Rings. 

   Image by Patrick Boulanger-Nadeau

Dorypteryx domestica

Psyllipsocus apache Mockford 2011

Psyllipsocus apache map Size: 1.2 - 1.5 mm. Range outside Texas: Records from Arizona and California. Habitat: Found in leaf litter, dead yucca leaves and dead palm leaves. All are brachypterous. Named for Indian tribe from type locality.

Psyllipsocus apache male
Psyllipsocus apache f

 Psyllipsocus ramburii Selys-Longchamps 1872  

Psyllipsocus ramburii map.Size: 2 mm Range: cosmopolitan Females micropterous or macro- pterous. Found in caves, cellars and occasionally shaded outcrops. Records: Texas Memorial Museum
 
Photo by Matthew Bergeron.

Psyllipsocus ramburii

Suborder Troctomorpha

Infraorder Amphientometae

Family AMPHIENTOMIDAE


Lithoseopsis hellmani (Mockford & Gurney)  1956

Lithoseopsis hellmani mapSize: 3.5 mm Range outide Texas: southern Arizona south to Central America. - Habitat: Shaded limestone outcrops. This species is part of a complex of closely related species found from southern Texas. Known from female only.
Lithoseopsis hellmani.

Infraorder Nanopsocetae

Family LIPOSCELIDIDAE

Subfamily Embidopsocinae

Belaphotroctes  sp.

Yes, there are liposcelidids with wings! In this genus mx4 is much wider than mx3. Females may be apteous or macropterous depending on species.

Size: 1.7 mm Range: Winged females have been found in Hays Co. This specimen was caught sweeping grass. This one is a possible ant mimic. We hope to find apterous males and females of this species.


Belaphotroctes sp. female.

Embidopsocus laticeps Mockford 1963


Size: ~ 1.0 mm Range: Texas- Harris Co.; Gulf Coast Florida to Texas and in Bullock Co. Ga. Habitat: under bark of dead trees. Known from males, macropterors and apterous females.

    Photograph by Graham Montgomery



Ebidopsocus laticeps.

Subfamily Liposcelidinae

Liposcelis Section I


Liposcelis brunnea Motschulsky 1852

Size: ~ 1.1 mm Range: west Texas, Arizona, New Mexico, Colorado, northeast to Ottowa, Ontario.
Habitat: Conifer and oak foilage, and ground litter beneath these trees, bird nests and domestic situations

  Image by George Opit

Liposcelis brunnea.

Liposcelis deltachi  Sommerman  1957

Size: 1.1 mm Range: Hays Co.; Southern and western Texas, southern New Mexico, southern Oklahoma; San Luis Potosi, Mexico. Habitat: Foliage of junipers, pine, yuccas, mesquite and leaf litter. Known from females only.


Liposcelis deltachi.

Liposcelis entomophila (Enderlein)  1907

Size: ~ 1.1 mm. Range: Texas- Hays Co.;  Midwest and southeastern U.S. to central Texas; fairly cosmopolitan. Habitat: Primarily domestic but also taken in leaf litter. Field collected specimens (as in leaf litter) mostly tropical and subtropical. Known from male and female.





Liposcelis entomophila

Liposcelis hirsutoides Mockford 1978

Size: 1.1 mm. Range: central and south Texas and in central-penninsular Florida.  Habitat: woody vegetation and under bark. I find it especially on lichen covered banches of Mesquite.  Known from both sexes but I have yet to photograph a male.
Liposcelis hirsutoides

Liposcelis ornata Mockford 1978

Size: 1.2 mm. Range: Gulf Coast from Florida to Texas and in the Mexican states of San Luis Potosi and Tabasco. Known from female only. Habitat: Great variety of trees and shrubs. I have found in in leaf litter and dead palm fronds.

Liposcelis ornata

Liposcelis pearmani Lienhard 1990


Size: ~ 1.1 mm. Range: Texas- Hays Co.  Relatively cosmopolitan; recorded from several U. S. states including Texas. Habitat: Domestic; also found in bird nests, under bark and sweeping grass. This species is known from both sexes.



Liposcelis pearmani.

Liposcelis pallida Mockford  1978


Size: ~ 1 mm. Range: Texas- Blanco Co.; Known from the Davis Mts. of Texas and Catalina Mts. of Arizona. The specimen pictured was collected at Flat Creek (Blanco Co.). Habitat: Dead persistent leaves of yucca; leaf litter. Known from both sexes.


Liposcelis pallida.

Liposcelis Section II

Liposcelis bostrychophila Badonnel 1931

Size: ~ 1.0 mm Range: Texas- Hays Co.;  Cosmopolitan Habitat: under bark, bird nests, stored grain, old books, chicken litter. Known only from females. If there is a classic booklouse, this is it



Liposcelis bostrychophila.

Family PACHYTROCTIDAE



Nanopsocus oceanicus Pearman 1928

Nanopsocus oceanicus mapSize: ~ macropterous female , 1.5 mm., apteous female 1.0 mm. Range: southeastern U. S. north to Illinois; also Mexico, Central America, West Indies, West and Central Africa, Japan and South Pacific Islands . Habitat: Occurs on dead leaves of palms, bamboos and grasses.


Nanopsocus oceanicus male
Nanopsocus oceanicus ap female
Macropterous females brown; apterous females creamy white; males (apterous) creamy white but with a reddish brown stripe along anterior margin of abdominal terga 2-7. This genus is characterized by a foliate shaped hind tarsal claw on each foot.
Nanopsocus oceanicus mac female.
Nanopsocus oceanicus mac female.

Peritroctes bengalensis Thornton 1966

Peritroctes bengalensis map Size: 1.1 mm. Range: First recorded from the Botanical Gardens of Calcutta, India by Ian W. B. Thornton & S. K. Wong, "Some Psocoptera from West Bengal, India", Transactions of the  Royal Entomological Society of London, 118(1):1-21, 1966. Habitat: leaf litter, dead palm frinds, dead persistent leaves.

Peritroctes bengalensis ap female
Awaiting image of male
I have a colony in my leaf litter/ dead palm frond habitat here in San Marcos, TX. I am not sure what the big picture is. Awaiting image of macropterous female


Tapinella maculata Mockford & Gurney 1956 

Tapinella maculata mapSize: male ~ 1 mm, female ~ 1.5 mm.  Range: Central Texas to lower Rio Grande Valley, Mexico and South America.  Habitat: dead palm and grass leaves  Known from males, macropterous and apterous females.
Tapinella maculata male. Tapinella maculata female.


To the left is the macropterous female (length 1.7 mm). In my experience, this form is rarer than the apterous one. In this family, the wings are held flat over the abdomen, not roof-like as in the Psocomorpha. Dr. Mockford says that this individual from Gonzales Co. shows much more patterning on the head than specimens in far south Texas.
Tapinella maculata macropterous.
Tapinella maculata female mac.

Tapinella sp. "Type 2"

Tapinells sp. 2 mapSize:  male ~ 1.1 mm, female ~ 1.3 mm   Range: unknown   Habitat: Leaf litter  This un-described species lacks the backwards "U" shaped marks along the lateral edge of the abdomen. This species often occurs with Tapinella maculata.


Tapinella sp type 2 male. Tapinella sp type 2 female.

The images on this row depict the macropterous form of  Tapinella sp. Type 2.  These individuals possess ocelli while the apterous morphs do not. 

Tapinella sp. 2 female marop
Tapinella sp 2 female macrop.

Family SPHAEROPSOCIDAE

Sphaeropsocus bicolor Mockford 2013

Sphaeropsocus bicolor map.Size: 0.7 mm Range: single site  Habitat: leaf litter This species has not been forund in Texas but it is so remarkable that I had to include it. "It is the first living species of its genus, known otherwise only from Sphaeropsocus kuenowii Hagen, a fossil species from the Baltic amber (Eocene)." Mockford, E. L., A New species of Sphaeropsocus Hagen from south eastern U. S.: the first living species of its genus, Life: the Excitement of Biology 1(2): 100-111, 2013.  

Sphaeropsocus bicolor image

Suborder Psocomorpha

Epipsocetae    Caeciliusetae    Homilopsocidea    Psocetae

Infraorder Epipsocetae

Family EPIPSOCIDAE


Bertkauia crosbyana Chapman 1930

Bertkauia crosbyana map.

Size: ~ 1.7 mm  Range: throughout eastern U.S., southern Rocky Mts., northwest Washington state. Mexico: San Cristobal and Chiapas. Habitat: woodland ground litter Males (very rare) macropterous, femaes micropterous.


Bertkauia crosbyana.

 Infraorder Caeciliusetae

Caeciliusidae

Stenopsocidae

Amphipsocidae

Dasydemellidae


Family CAECILIUSIDAE


Stenocaecilius casarum (Badonnel) 1931

Stenocaecilius casarum mapSize: ~ 3.5 mm Range: outside Texas- Gulf Coast from south Florida to the Rio Grande Valley. Wide range in the tropics including Mexico, Guatemala & Venezuela. Habitat: Living or dead palm foilage. With the exception of a single male taken in Guyana, this species consists only of females.

Stenocaecilius casarum.

Valenzuela croesus (Chapman) 1930                                 

Valenzuela croesus map.Size: ~ 3 mm  Range: Texas, Arkansas east to Mississippi, North Carolina and north the New York; ranges from Mexico to Guatemala. Habitat: Prefers foilage of Juniperus and Cupressus.


Valenzuela croesus male.
Valenzuela croesus female.

Valenzuela flavidus (Stephens) 1836

Valenzuela flavidus mapSize: 3.6 mm, Range outside Texas: eastern U. S., northern Pacific Coast, also Europe, Canary Islands, Bermuda, and Mexico. Habitat: Foilage of broadleaf trees. Males are scarce throughout most of the range. Populations which have males may represent a sibling species (Mockford, 1993).
Valenzuela flavidus male. Valenzuela flavidus female.

Valenzuela lochloosae (Mockford) 1965

Valenzuela lochloosae map

Size: ~ 3 mm   Range: Throughout Florida and southeast Alabama.  Range probably along entire Gulf Coast. Habitat: persistent dead leaves of native grasses.


Valenzuela lochloosae male. Valenzuela lochloosae female.

Valenzuela manteri (Sommerman) 1943

map of Valenzuela manteri.Size: ~ 3 mm Range outside Texas: eastern U. S.  records in Minnesota, Missouri and Nebraska. Habitat: dead leaves of cattail, corn and palmetto. This species was described by Kathryn M. Sommerman in "Description and bionomics of Caecilius manteri", Proc. Ent. Soc. of Washington, 45(2): 9-39, 1943 with marvelous illustrations. Males are rare in this species.
                       Valenzuela manteri mac f.
Valenzuela manteri mic female.
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Valenzuela micanopi  (Mockford)  1965

Valenzuela micanopi map.

Size: male 3.0 mm, female 3.2 mm Range outside  Texas:  throughout Florida, southeast Alabama and on Bimini Island and the Bahamas.  Habitat: dead leaves of Sabal and Coccothrinax
Valenzuela micanopi male. Valenzuela micanopi female.

Valenzuela nadleri Mockford 1966

Valenzuela nadleri mapSize: male 2.6 mm, female 2.7 mm. Range: eastern US, west to Wisconsin and Missouri,also SE Canada. Recent records extend range westward. Habitat: leaf litter. Females dimorphic- macropterous and micropterous.

Valenzuela nadleri male
Valenzuela nadleri female
This is an image of the micropterous female by Jean Brodeur of Canada. This female morph looks very similar to the micropterous female of Valenzuela posticus. Micropterous females of V. nadleri, however, have dark antennae all the way to the tip. Both  occur in leaf litter


Valenzuela nadleri microp


Valenzuela subflavus (Aaron) 1886    

Valenzuela subflavus map Size: ~ 2.5 mm  Range: Outside Texas - Atlantic and Gulf Coast  Habitat:  foliage of broadleaf evergreen trees like American holly and live oak.
Valenzuela subflavus. Valenzuela subflavus female.

Family STENOPSOCIDAE

Graphopsocus cruciatus (Linnaeus) 1768

Graphopsocus cruciatus map Size:  ~3.8 mm   Range:  Texas Gulf Coast. This non-native species was apparently introduced along both coasts sometime in the early 19th century. Habitat: Foilage of braodleaf deciduous and evergreen trees.
Graphopsocus cruciatus male. Graphopsocus cruciatus female.

Family AMPHIPSOCIDAE


Polypsocus corruptus (Hagen) 1861

 Polypsocus corruptus map.                                                  Size: ~ 3.5 mm  Range outside Texas: eastern U. S. west to Missouri; eastern Canada and Pacific coast from British Columbia south to northern Califorina. There are closely related species in Mexico. Habitat: Variety of broad-leaf  trees including Magnolia.

Polypsocus corruptus male.
Polypsocus corruptus female.

Family DASYDEMELLIDAE


Teliapsocus conterminus (Walsh) 1863

Teliapsocus conterminus map.Size: 5.6 mm Range: Throughout most of U.S. and Canada, but absent from northern midwestern states. Habitat: Great variety of broad-leaf and coniferous trees and occasionally ground litter. Not known outside North America. Male image by Patrick Coin.

Teliapsocus conterminus male.
Teliapsocus conterminus female.

Infraorder Homilopsocidea


Lachesillidae

Ectopsocidae

Peripsocidae

Trichopsocidae

Archipsocidae

Pseudocaecillidae



Family LACHESILLIDAE

Andra Group


Lachesilla kola Sommerman 1946

Lachesilla kola map Size: ~ 2.2 mm  Range: Outside Texas- Records from southern California, Arizona and New Mexico  Habitat: specimens shown found on dead Chinaberry branches near the Concho River

Lachesillla kola male. Lachesilla kola female.

Lachesilla nubilis (Aaron) 1886

Lachesilla nubilis map.

Size: ~ 2.6 mm  Range: Outside Texas- throughout eastern U.S. west to New Mexico, Colorado and Utah.  Habitat: dead grasses and dead limbs with persistent leaves.



Lachesilla nubilis male. Lachesilla nubilis female.

Lachesilla texana Mockford & Garcia Aldrete  2010

Lachesilla texana map.

Size: ~2.2 mm  Range: Outside Texas - a second population in the Smokey Mts.  Mexico: Nuevo Leon, Coahuila, and Cerrode la Silla.  Habitat:  dead leaves on clumps of native grasses.

Lachesilla texana male. Lachesilla texana female.

Corona Group


Lachesilla michiliensis Garcia Aldrete 1991

Lachesilla michilensis map.

Size: ~ 1.5 mm Range: Outside Texas  Mexico: Durango State Habitat: under loose bark Known only from female. "This species is neotenic as indicated by the brachyptery, small oceli and almost complete absence of sensory fields on the paraprocts" Garcia Aldrete, A., "Lachesillidae from the Biosphere Reserve 'La Michilia", Durango and Surrounding Areas, Folia Entomologica Mexicana 81: 165-183, 1991.

  photograph by Graham Montgomery



Lachesilla michiliensis.

Forcepeta Group


  Lachesilla anna  Sommerman 1946

Lachesilla anna map.Size: 3.2 mm Range: Outside Texas occurs throughout eastern U.S. and southeastern Canada, south to Marian Co. Florida and west to Texas Co. Missouri. Habitat: persistent dead leaves trees and shrubs.


Lachesilla anna male.
Lachesilla anna female.

Lachesilla contraforcepeta Chapman 1930

Lachesilla contraforcepeta map Size: ~ 2.0 mm  Range: Outside Texas- throughout eastern U.S., and Rocky Mountain region, New Mexico, Colorado, Idaho. Habitat: conifers such as junipers and pine. Male claspers curve outward.


Lachesilla contraforcepeta male. Lachesilla contraforsepeta femae.

Lachesilla floridana  Garcia Aldrete  1999

Lachesilla floridana map

Size: 2.0 mm  Range: Outside Texas coastal distribution in Florida and Alabama;  Habitat: Found on dead palm and palmetto fronds.  Note the crossvein between the pterostigma and vein Rs.


Lachesilla floridana male. Lachesilla floridana, female.

Lachesilla forcepeta Chapman 1930

Lachesilla forcepeta map Size: ~ 2.0 mm  Range: Outside of Texas- throughout eastern U.S. west to Oklahoma and Kansas and the San Antonio area of Texas.  Habitat: conifers including Juniperus ashei.

Lachesilla forcepeta male. Lachesilla forcepeta female.

Lachesilla kathrynae Mockford & Gurney 1956

Lachesilla kathrynae map Size: ~ 2.5 mm   Range:  Lower Rio Grande Valley  Mexico: Tabasco State  Habitat: dead foliage of palms and carrizo grass

Lachesilla kathrynae male. Lachesilla katherynae female.

Lachesilla penta Sommerman 1946

Lachesilla penta map Size: ~ 2.5 mm  Range: Outside Texas- Gulf states from Texas to Florida; eastern Mexico south to Chiapas State.  Habitat: prsistant dead leaves of deciduous trees and palms.

Lachesilla penta male. Lachesilla penta female.

Pedicularia Group

Lachesilla pedicularia (Linnaeus) 1758

map Lachesilla pedicularia. Size: 2.5 mm. Range: This species has been recorded from most of the U. S. nearly cosmopolitan elsewhere. Habitat: Found on grasses, dead persistent leaves, dried grain  and occcasionally conifers. It is easily transported in human commerce and can become a pest of stored grain.

Awaiting image of male.
Lachesilla pedicularia female

Lachesilla rena Sommerman 1946

Lachesilla rena mapSize: 1.8 mm  Range: Outside Texas - southern California and Maricopa Co. Arizona and throughout much of Mexico.  Habitat: dead grasses and low vegetation.


Lachesilla rena male Lachesilla rena female.

Lachesilla tectorum Badonnel 1931

Lachesilla tectorum map.Size: 2.5 mm Range: outside Texas- Gulf coast  Florida to Texas Mexico: Tamaulipas and Nuevo Leon Habitat: dead leaves of palm and tall grasses Known from female only




Lachesilla tectorum female.

Lachesilla yucateca Mockford 2002

Lachesilla yucateca map.

Size: ~ 1.7 mm   Range: Outside Texas- Mexico: Oaxaca, Tamaulipas, Yucatan,  Habitat: persistent dried leaves of native grasses. This species belongs to the Rena complex in which the male epiproct is extremely long and narrow.


Lachesilla yucateca male. Lachesilla yucateca female.

Riegeli Group

Lachesilla tropica  Garcia Aldrete 1982

Lachesilla tropica map.

Size: 2.2 mm Range - Outside Texas: Florida, throughout most of Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, Jamaica. Habitat: hanging dead leaves of trees and shrubs.


Lachesilla tropica male. Lachesilla tropica female.

Rufa Group

Lachesilla nita Sommerman 1946

Lachesilla nita map Size: 2.5 mm. Range: Gulf Coast Georgia to Texas, also in Mexico, Beliize, Guatemala, and Panama. Habitat: Found on cabbage palm, various oaks, Eleagnus and other shrubs. Note the characteristic diffuse spot in each cell from R3, R5, M1, M2, M3.

Lachesilla nita male
Lachesilla nita female

Sclera Group

Lachesilla sulcata Garcia Aldrete 1986

Lachesilla sulcata map.

Size: ~ 2.0 mm   Range: Outside Texas- Gulf states from Texas to Florida. Mexico: Nuevo Leon, Tamaulipas, Chiapas. Habitat: native grass.The male of this species was only recently been described (Garcia Aldrete & Mockford "Reappraisal of Species Group Patzunensis" Proc. Ent. Soc. Washington 113(4): 417-425, 2011

Lachesilla sulcata female.

Family ECTOPSOCIDAE


Ectopsocopsis cryptomeriae (Enderlein) 1907

Ectopsocopsis cryptomeriae map.

Size:  ~ 1.7 mm   Range: Outside Texas- Gulf States from Texas to Florida and north to New York, west to Illinois   Habitat: leaf litter; hanging dead leaves

Ectopsocopsis cryptomeriae male. Ectopsocopsis cryptomeriae female.

Ectopsocus californicus (Banks) 1903

Ectopsocus californicus map.

Size: ~ 2.4 mm  Range: Outside Texas: U. S. Atlantic and Pacific Coast, Mexico and the highlands of Guatemala   Habitat: living and dead foliage of broadleaf and coniferous trees

Ectopsocus californicus male. Ectopsocus californicus female.

Ectopsocus meridionalis Ribaga  1904

Ectopsocus meridionalis map.Size: 2.4 mm  Range outsie Texas: throughout eastern U.S. south to Florida; central Mexico to  to Chile, southern Europe, Africa and Japan. Habitat: persistent dead leaves. Known only from female.           
Ectopsocus meridionalis.

Ectopsocus vachoni Badonnel 1945


Ectopsocus vachoni map.

Size: males ~ 1.0 mm, females ~ 1.7 mm Range: Outside Texas- US Gulf States,California; Mexico, South America, and Europe Habitat: leaf litter, dried grass and lower foliage of trees.


Ectopsocus vachoni male. Ectopsocus vachoni female.


In this species, the males are micropterous and the females are either macropterous or micropterous. The tiny male has a dark clunial comb (visible in a dissecting microscope) which identifies it as mature. I once observed a male  approaching a female and  vibrating his body  rhythmically as a prelude to courtship. This species is likely very common throughout Texas.


Ectopsocus vachoni micropterous female.


Family PERIPSOCIDAE

Peripsocus madidus (Hagen) 1861

Peripsocus madidus map.Size:~ 3.2 mm Range: Outside Texas  Nova Scotia south to Florida and west to central Texas Habitat: bark and branches of broad-leaf and coniferous trees

 
Peripsocus madidus male. Peripsocus madidus female.

The barchypterous form of this species is shown to the left. I do not find this form in central Texas but did record them from Austin Co.

Peripsocus madidus brachypeterous.



Peripsocus subfasciatus (Rambur) 1842

Peripsocus subfasciatus map.Size: ~ 2.7 mm  Range:  Outside Texas - eastern U.S., west to Minnesota and Arkansas, Pacific Coast from San Francisco Bay to British Columbia. Habitat: branches of broadleaf and coniferous trees and shaded stone outcrops. Male virtually absent except in Washington state and Vancouver, British Columbia
Peripsocus subfasciatus.

Peripsocus minimus Mockford 1971Peripsocus minimus map.

Size: ~ 2.0 mm  Range:  Outside Texas- southern Illinois southwestward to Missoiri, Arkansas and central Texas  Habitat: foliage of Juniperus virginiana and Juniperus ashei

Peripsocus minimus male. Peripsocus minimus female.

Peripsocus sp.

Peripsocus sp. mystery map.

  Size: male: ~ 2.2 mm, female ~ 1.5 mm Range:  Habitat: Lichen covered branches of Quercus virginiana and Texas persimmon (Diospyros texana)  This is an un-described species in which the female is micropterous.


Peripsocus close to stagnivagus male. Peripsocus sp female.

Family TRICHOPSOCIDAE

Trichopsocus dalii (McLachlan) 1867

Trichopsocus dalii mapSize: ~ 2.8 mm  Range: outside Texas- this introduced species is found in states on the Gulf and Atlantic coast of the U.S. and in the Atlantic and Mediteranean coast of Europe and North Africa  Habitat:  branches of braod leaf  trees like citrus, bay, Ligustrum and Ilex.
richopsocus dalii male.
Trichopsocus dalii female.

Family ARCHIPSOCIDAE

Archipsocus sp.

Archipsocus specimens are found along the Gulf coast from Florida to Texas and in Mexico. They can occur in Texas as far inland as Travis Co. I have not yet identified this species. These specimens were found at Palmetto State Park. There are three described species which  might occur on the Texas coast: Archipsocus floridanus, A. gurneyi and A. nomas. The webbing from these psocids often covers entire tree trunks and causes a media sensation. 

Archipsocus sp.


Family PSEUDOCAECILIIDAE

Pseudocaecilius citricola (Ashmead 1879)

map Pseudocaecilius citricola.Size: 2.8 mm  Range: Outside Texas, occurs throughout Florida, on the Alabama coast, pan-tropical; is even recorded on the Galapagos Islands  Habitat: living leaves of citrus, evergreen oaks, palms and other trees. Known from female only.

Pseudocaecilius citricola female.

Family PHILOTARSIDAE 

Aaroniella sp.

Aaroniella sp. map. Size: 2.2 mm This un-described species is found at the Aransas National Wildlife Refuge. Habitat: small dead branches of live oak in a heavily wooded area.

Aaroniella sp. male.
Aaroniella sp. female.

Infraorder Psocetae

Family HEMIPSOCIDAE


Hemipsocus chloroticus (Hagen) 1858

Hemipsocus chloroticus map.Size: ~ 3 mm. Range outside Texas: Non native. Found South Carolina to Florida along coastal plain to Texas; Oregon as an introduction from Japan. Native to Southeast Asia and many Pacific Islands. Habitat: Forest leaf litter.
Hemipsocus chloroticus male
                                            

hemipsocus chloroticus female

Family PSOCIDAE

Amphigerontiinae  

Psocinae


Subfamily Amphigerontiinae


Amphigerontia montivaga (Chapman) 1930


  Amphigerontia montivaga mapSize: ~ 4.7 mm Range: outside Texas- New York south to Florida and west to Wisconsin and south Texas  Habitat: branches of broad-leaf and evergreen trees
Amphigerontia montivaga male.
Amphigerontia montivaga female.

Blaste garciorum Mockford 1984

Blaste garciorum mapSize: ~ 3.5 mm Range outside Texas- south to Mexico and Honduras  Habitat: branches of small trees and shrubs in arid woodlands
Blaste garciorum male.
Blaste garciorum female.

Blaste longipennis (Banks) 1918

Blaste longipennis mapSize: ~ 5 mm. Range outside Texas: Yellowsone Natonal Park south to Chiricahua Mountainsof Arizona. Habitat: Collected on dwarf mistletoe, Arceuthobuim vaginatum and conifers.

Blaste longipennis male
Awaiting image of female

Blaste persimilis (Banks) 1908

Blaste persimilis map Size: 3.5 mm. Range: Gulf Coast from Alabama to Brownsville, Texas then north to Refurio. Habitat: branches of oaks and dead vines. Known only from the male. I found females at Palm Harbor, TX. No published description yet of female.

Blaste persimilis male
Blaste persimilis female

Blaste posticata (Banks) 1905

Blaste posticata mapSize: ~ 3.8 mm  Range outside Texas- south to Mexico, Honduras and Guatemala  Habitat: broad-leaf trees, shrubs and pine
Blaste posticata male.
Blaste posticata female.

Blaste quieta (Hagen) 1861

Blaste quieta map. Size: ~ 4.5 mm  Range outside Texas- Montreal to Florida and west to South Dakota and Texas; outlier populations in Idaho and British Columbia  Habitat: branches of broad-leaf and coniferous trees
Blaste quieta male.
Blaste quieta female.

Blastopsocus lithinus (Chapman) 1930


Blastopsocus lithinus map Size: ~ 3.7 mm  Range outside Texas- Montreal south to Floida - west to Minnesota to Texas  Habitat: branches of broad-leaf and coniferus trees

                             Awaiting image of male                             
Blastopsocus lithinus female.

Blastopsocus walshi Mockford 2002

Blastopsocus walshi map.Size: ~ 3.3 mm Range outside Texas-  Illinois south to Florida  Habitat: branches of broad-leaf trees
Blastopsocus walshi male.
Blastopsocus walshi female.

 Subfamily Psocinae

Tribe Cerastipsocini

 

Cerastipsocus venosus (Burmeister)  1839

Cerastipsocus venosus map.Size: ~ 6 mm  Range outside Texas - Maine south to southern Florida; south to Mexico. Habitat: Trunks and brances of broad leaf trees and conifers. Most males have the pterostigma white as in the female shown here. Images by Robert Zimlich.
Cerastipsocus venosus male.
Cerastipsocus venosus female.

Cerastipsocus trifasciatus (Provancher) 1876




Tribe Metylophorini


Metylophorus novaescotiae (Walker) 1853

Metylophorus nov. map. Size: 6-7 mm   Range outside Texas: Nova Scotia and coastal Maine to Florida, west to Minnesota. Habitat: Branches of broad-leaf trees and shrubs. Also occurs in Mexico.

Images by Tom Murray

mETYLOPHORUS NOV. MALE
mETYLOPHORUS NOV. FEMALE.


Tribe Psocini




Hyalopsocus sp. close to floridanus

Hyalopsocus #1 map.Size: male  ~5.4 mm, female ~5.6 mm Range:   Habitat: Wide variety of braodleaf and coniferous trees; usually on dead branches encrusted with lichen.
Hyalopsocus sp. male. Hyalopsocus sp female.

Hyalopsocus striatus (Walker) 1853

Hyaopsocus #2 map.Size:  5.3 mm  Range outside Texas: Throughout northeastern U.S.  and southeast Canada. Occurs spottily in western states.    Habitat: Juniperous ashei  This species is characterized by the extensive pigment in cells Cu2 and IA in the forewing.

Hyalopsocus sp. # 2 male Hyalopsocus sp. #2 female

Psocus leidyi Aaron 1886

Psocus leidyi map. Size: ~ 5.4 mm   Range: Maine to Minnesota, south to Florida and southwest to Arkansas with an outlier population in northern California. Habitat: Broadleaf trees, Mesquite, Hackberry, live oak
Psocus leidyi male. Psocus leidyi female.

Tribe Ptyctini

Indiopsocus bisignatus (Banks) 1904

Indiopsocus bisignatus map. Size: ~ 3.9 mm  Range Outside Texas -eastern U.S. from northern Minnesota south to west Florida, west of the Mississippi it occurs spotily to Wyoming, Colorado and Texas; also occurs in Mexico  Habitat: trunks and branches of braod-leaf and conifer trees
Indiopsocus bisignatus male.
Indiopsocus bisignatus female

Indiopsocus campestris (Aaron) 1886

Indiopsocus campestris mapSize: male 3.1 mm, female 3.2 mm Range: Atlantic Coast, throughout Florida continuing along Gulf Coast to Texas. Habitat:  broad leaf trees and shrubs including live oak, turkey oak and  pine.

Indiopsocus campestris male
Indiopsocus campestris female

Indiopsocus infumatus (Banks) 1907

Indiopsocus infumatus map. Size: ~ 3.6 mm  Range Outside Texas - Oklahoma, New York, south to Kentucky; central Texas is probably at the western end of the range for this species   Habitat: dead branches of broad-leaf trees; my specimens on live oak and ashe juniper
Indiopsocus infumatus male.
Indipsocus infumatus female.

Indiopsocus lanceolatus Mockford & Young 2015

Indiopsocus lanceolatus map.Size: ~3.6 mm Range: Outside Texas: Gulf Coast, AL, GA, FL, VA. Habitat: broad leaf trees like Quercus virginiana. Recently described in Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 141:233-251.


Indiopsocus lanceolatus male.
Indiopsocus lanceolatus female.

Indiopsocus lacteus Mockford & Young 2015

Indiopsocus luridus map.Size: ~ 3.9 mm  Range: endemic to Texas Hill Country. Habitat: lower bare limbs of living Juniperus ashei. Recently described in Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 141:233-251.


Indiopsocus luridus male.
Indiopsocus luridus female.

Indiopsocus palmatus Mockford & Young 2015

Indiopsocus vannifer map.Size: ~ 3.8 mm  Range : Apparently a Texas endemic. Habitat: braodleaf trees like Quercus virginiana, Celtis reticulata Ulmus crassifolia and Acacia farnesiana. Recently described in Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 141:233-251.


Indiopsocus vannifer male.
Indiopsocus vannifer female.

Indiopsocus texanus (Aaron)  1886

range map indiopsocus texanus.Size: 3.9 mm Range outside Texas: Throughout Florida up the Atlantic coast to Virginia; Gulf Coast.  Habitat: broadleaf trees including live oak

Indiopsocus texanus male
Indiopsocus texanus female.

Loensia moesta (Hagen) 1861

Loensia moesta map.Size: ~ 4.2 mm  Range Outside Texas- Minnesota south to Florida west to Texas  Habitat: wide variety of broad-leaf and coniferous trees
Loensia moesta male.
Loensia moesta female.

"Psocidus"  sp. "Beauty Queen"

Loensia beauty queen map.Size: ~ 4.3 mm  Range outside Texas- unknown  Habitat: lichen covered branches of live oak, Mesquite, Ashe juniper and cedar elm  In my humble opinion, this un-described species is a beautiful psocid! Don't you agree? This species is placed in a "holding" genus until further study.
Loensia beauty queen male.
Loensia beauty queen female.

Ptycta polluta (Walsh) 1862

Ptycta polluta map.Size: ~ 3.4 mm  Range:  outside Texas- Nova Scotia south to Florida, west to Minnesota   Habitat: branches of braod-leaf and coniferous trees
Ptycta polluta male.
Ptycta polluta female.

Trichadenotecnum slossonae (Banks) 1903

Trichadenotecnum slossonae map.Size: ~ 3.2 mm Range: outside Texas- eastern U.S. west to Minnesta and central Texas  Habitat: branches of broad-leaf and coniferous trees
Trichadenotecnum slossonae male.
Trichadenotecnum slossonae female.

Family MYOPSOCIDAE


Lichenomima sparsa  (Hagen)  1861

Lichenomima sparsamap.Size: male 4.7 mm female 5.9 mm  Range: Outside Texas - Washington D.C. south to Florida, west to Indiana, Arkansas. Inhabits shaded stone outcrops and tree trunks. Dr. Mockford has expressed the need for this genus to be revised.
    Lichenomima sparsa male
Lichenomima sparsa female.

Lichenomima sp. "W"

Lichenomima sp. W  map.
Size: female 4.8 mm  Range: Outside Texas- unknown. Found on Quercus vrginiana at Welder Wildlife Refuge.

Awaiting image of male
Lichenomima sp. W female.


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